Missouri Cherokee Tribes proclaim Jewish Heritage

The Northern Cherokee Nation of the Old Louisiana Territory has recently shocked the world by claiming their ancient Oral legends tell of a Cherokee migration made to America from the area known as Masada.

This startling evidence is being offered to the public by Beverly Baker Northup whom is the spokesperson for their organization. The evidence offered in support of this connection to Cherokees escaping the mountain fortress of Masada is based in part of what Northup claims is stories passed down from elders and the similarity between ancient words.

Beverly Baker Northup believes there is a connection between these two peoples based on evidence of Jews of the region around Masada during Roman times wearing braided hair and the similarities that the spokesperson attributes to Hebrew language.

Here you will find a series of pages about the connection between our Cherokee Heritage and the Nation of Israel. Many new discoveries regarding this significant connection are being made each and every day, and are very important to our Cherokee Heritage.
Please read each page carefully.

Cherokee< —click button Pocahontas, Obviously a “Little Jewish Girl“

The Influence of Sephardic Jews and Moors on Southeastern Indian Cultures
By Donald Panther-Yates

Keynote address given to Institute for the Study of American Cultures, and Epigraphic Society, Columbus, Georgia

    October 24, 2002

    When he died in 1986, the Jewish-American writer Bernard Malamud left an unfinished, truly genius-laden novel called The People that some say is his most bizarre and comical work. It tells the story of a Yiddish peddler who is kidnapped by a tribe of Indians and who becomes Chief Yozip, winning the love of the old chief’s daughter, One Blossom, after passing a series of initiation tests and fighting off the U.S. Cavalry. In the unwritten conclusion, Yozip apparently joins Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show “as a White Indian…becomes a U.S. citizen, and enrolls in night school to study law in order to help the Indians fight persecution and injustice.”

    The meeting of minds of Indian and Jew that has been my topic today is described in one scene from Malamud’s The People, which I mentioned at the beginning of my presentation. I would like to close by sharing with you a funny, but telling skit from that book.

    “As the moons change so does the world change…”
    The chief nodded and Yozip nodded. They were sitting cross-legged on the ground.
    “We are an ancient tribe,” said the chief. “Some call us the first of this land. Our ancestors said they were the children of Quodish. We live in his word. We speak his name in our hearts. We touch our heads when we think of him. I say my words to him. Do you understand what I mean?”
    “Of cuss,” said Yozip, though he did not say what the words might mean.
    “We are descended from the first tribe.”
    “This I understand. From the first comes the second.”
    “Where do you come from?” asked the chief.
    “I come from Russia. I am a socialist.”
    “What is socialist?”
    “We believe in a better world. Not to hurt but to help people.”
    “These are our words too,” said the old chief. “We are the people.”
    “Amen,” said Yozip.

I’m going to speak to you today about the influence of Sephardic Jews – one of the two divisions of world Jewry, the Western division — on Indian cultures in the Southeast U.S. in a time frame of approximately 1600 to 1800, when the area was predominantly Spanish and the first contact took place between the tribes of the interior and traders from the coastal settlements of St. Augustine, Savannah, Jamestown and Pensacola. My work seeks to establish the thesis that—funny as it may sound—the five so-called “Civilized Tribes” of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole owe their high degree of assimilation, long history of treaty-making, trade and legal rights, and in fact their very survival to Sephardic Jews like my forefather Isaac Cooper.

Using a combination of y-chromosome testing, genealogy and local history, Hirschman has proved beyond the shadow of a doubt that the forebears of the Melungeons were Sephardic Jews. Among her quite brilliant discoveries are that Daniel Boone, David Crockett, Andrew Jackson, Jefferson Davis, Sam Houston and James Robertson, the founder of the Cumberland settlements were Jewish, if not in practice, at least in genetics and by association.

It is indeed a stunning revision of American history to think that the earliest settlers in Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina, Florida, Kentucky, and Tennessee were not stalwart, white-skinned Anglo-Saxons and Celts from the British Isles, but rather dusky, dark-eyed, dark haired, exotic, non-Christian Semites and Berbers from North Africa and Spain. It was Moors who occupied Black-a-moor’s fort on the Clinch River; it was a Semitic Daniel Boone who cleared the path through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky. This knowledge challenges not only our view of American history, but also the modern image of Jews and Muslims.

My third argument comes from the genealogies of chiefs among the Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole. I would love to talk about James Adair, who wrote his famous history of the American Indians “by the side of a Chikkasah female, as great a princess as ever lived (p. 447)” and who I think was himself Jewish …or James McQueen, who jumped ship as a lad in Pensacola harbor in 1719, married a succession of Creek princesses, lived to be 128 years old and was the grandfather of Tecumseh, Osceola and Josiah Francis (Hillis Harjo)… or Sequoyah who was from a Jewish family from Baltimore that married with the Gratz family of Philadelphia and Lancaster.

But time constraints force me to pass them over. Nevertheless, I will mention that Montgomery, Ala. was founded by a Jewish trader from Charleston who married a Creek Indian “princess.” Benjamin Hawkins, the Indian agent, mentions him: “Abraham M. Mordecai, a Jew of bad character” (Letters of Benjamin Hawkins 1796-1806, page 168). Pickens interviewed Mordecai for his history of early Alabama and wrote: “Abram Mordecai, an intelligent Jew, who dwelt fifty years in the Creek Nation, confidently believed that the Indians were originally of his people.” Many Indian traders in the Southeast not labeled as such appear to have Sephardic names. Most of them not of the itinerant or “fly-by-night” kind married a daughter or niece of the relevant Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw or Creek headman. It was common for anyone remaining within the nation over one winter to take a wife and become an adoptive citizen.

Another of the first white traders among the Choctaws (as early as 1767) was Hardy Perry, father of Chief Isaac Perry. Hardy Perry operated a trading post near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi after coming into the territory, so it is said, from Georgia. Reportedly he was the first to introduce oxen into the Choctaw Nation, bringing the animals north from Mobile. He had a Choctaw wife named Anolah (meaning “Black Fox”), who lived near present-day Grenada, Mississippi, and also a wife in the neighboring Chickasaw Nation. Here we are obviously dealing with crypto-Jews. The Perrys were a Sephardic family whose name (Perez) originally paid tribute to the pear tree of the land of Israel. Probably they are the namesake for Parris Island, where the last of Juan Pardo’s settlers were found. Anolah, we can be sure, was not a full blood. Perry is the same name as Perryman. The Sephardic features are, I think, very striking in the portrait of Benjamin Perryman, a Creek warrior, by Catlin. The most important founder of Jewish-Indian trading families was William Dixon Moniac (orig. Jacob Monaque), a French Jew who joined the last of the Natchez Indians and married Polly Colbert.

    In conclusion, Sephardic-Indian trading and land-owning families were responsible for forming the overall pattern of white-Indian relations in the U.S., emphasizing a legal relationship founded on peace, trade and mutual self-interest, unlike Latin America where Indians have no rights even to this day, since Judaism was banned in Spanish countries and trade was discouraged. The story of white-Indian relations in North America has normally been told as one giant unfolding systematic theft. Angie Debo, Vine Deloria and A. Alvarez are some of its better-known chroniclers. Guilt, anger, deception and misunderstanding dominate among its themes. According to both the apologists and the revolutionists, European colonists took the red man’s lives, land, livelihood, language and culture; they are even trying today to rob the Indian of his spirituality and identity. But the Sephardic Jewish colonists consistently went against this pattern. Where their English, French and Spanish counterparts did little more than take, the Jews and Moors gave. They gave large families of children, leadership abilities, trading relationships, writing and computational skills, building and construction know-how, legal advice, spinning wheels, looms, forges, smithies, ferries, cows, horses, peach orchards, beautiful arts and crafts. In the case of Will Thomas, the Carolina colonel who safeguarded the Eastern Cherokees’ existence, they even gave land and preserved a sovereignty that endures to this day.

According to the U.S. Census, the Cherokee constitute the country’s largest Indian group, with nearly 500,000 official and unofficial members. Through genocide, military conquest, plague, starvation, captivity, dispossession, betrayal and endless government maneuvers, they and the other major Southeastern tribes fought back with cunning and conviction. These were the first Indian nations to have constitutions, courts of law, a press, police forces and schools. Euchella v. Welsh (1824) and the Cherokee case before the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1830s marked their arrival in the circle of nations. The ensuing public sympathy stirred up by converted Jews like John Howard Payne, author of “Home Sweet Home,” secured a place in legend for them similar to the Founding Fathers of America and Davy Crockett. Families like the McDonalds, Adairs, Rosses, Coopers, Keyses, Browns, Rogerses and Vanns mingled their bloodlines with the strength of the natives in the eighteenth century and before. Were it not for that mixture the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek and Choctaw could never have survived as political entities. Were it not for those intermarriages, most Southeastern Indians would not have acquired immunities to disease and survived at all!

    Southern Sephardic Jews were the secret ingredient in an amazing melting pot formed on the Old Frontier. Flexible, down-to-earth, inconspicuous, they infiltrated, impressed and inspired the indigenous hierarchies. God’s Chosen People met the Great Spirit’s favorite people. Seemingly all traces of them have eroded with time, but DNA is uncovering their amazing story


August 2, 2008 | 19 Comments »

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  1. Bill, if this is a newfangled concept to you, you’d better get used to it. You’ll be seeing plenty more of this. We are no longer only up against Jews for Jesus and outright missionarizing. Now we’ve got parasites claim that they’re actually part of the host.

    Comment by Shy Guy — August 3, 2008 @ 12:45 pm

    Shy Guy this as you know is another messianic cult using deceitful methods to gain access to ignorant Jews, here is who is out in front:

    Rabbi Avraham Feld – Founder of the Kol haTor Project Probably not a Jew or a rabbi!!! Has anyone you know heard of him? Is he registered as a rabbi anywhere?

    Avraham Feld was born on February 14, 1954 in Manhattan, USA. He graduated at the Yeshiva College with studies in Jewish philosophy and psychology, earning his Rabbinic degree in 1983.

    Rabbi Avraham Feld is currently based in Jerusalem. His activities include extensive research projects for politicians and commentators on several topics. He maintains serious projects of rescue, in which field he holds world wide reputation. He is author and co-author of several religious research publications on Biblical topics.

    Rabbi Avraham Feld and the Kol HaTor Vision

    His association with the Kol HaTor Vision and Project draws from his passion for the Biblical Prophetical Promise of the Restoration of the House of Israel. It may also be linked to a special Blessing which, as a young man, he received from the illustrious Lubavitch Rebbe Schneerson, the prominent Chassidic Rabbi of the Chabad Lubavitch movement.


    While studying at Yeshiva University, Avraham acquired a reputation for being able to get youth out of deep troubles, especially in cases where others failed to do so. Shortly after he received his qualification as a Rabbi, he was approached by a leading figure in the Chabad movement who engaged him to handle an especially difficult and potentially dangerous case. Avraham agreed and succeeded – and this led to his meeting with the Rebbe.

    Photo of Rabbi Avraham Feld meeting with the Lubavitch
    Rebbe Menachem Mendel Schneerson

    The Rabbi wanted to personally thank and bless Avraham that he should merit to bring the Jewish youth whom he was dealing with, back onto the right path. After the blessing was bestowed upon him, he requested a further special blessing from the Rebbe. It was Avraham’s personal conviction and understanding, from the Bible and the writings of the Jewish sages that many Gentiles were of Israelite descent and that these ‘Lost Israelites” would one day return to their heritage and to the Land of Israel. The Rebbe’s reply to Avraham’s request was: “Of course they are”. He then blessed Avraham that he should merit to have a good influence on Jews and on Gentiles of Israelite descent in the Prophetic Process of Geulah (Restoration and Redemption of Israel).

    Years later only, Avraham found the outlet for his vision and the expression of his passion for the Biblically declared Return of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. He became co-founder of BRIT AM, a Jewish publication centered in Jerusalem, which researched the historic tracks of the Northern 10 Tribes since their exile, 8 centuries BCE.

    Towards the end of 2005 (beginning of the Jewish year 5766), he became the co-founder of Kol HaTor Project. With the amazing phenomenon of the awakening of the Hebraic Restoration Movement amongst Christian Zionists across the world, the Kol HaTor Project would now more directly publish and promote its Vision on Rabbinic level, as well as from the Hebraic Restoration platform amongst Christian Zionists. Basing its Vision on Ezekiel 37:15-28 regarding the Restoration of the 2 Houses of Judah and 10-Israel, the Kol HaTor Project would spread knowledge from the writings of the Biblical Prophets and the great Sages of Judaism about the imminent fulfillment of the Prophetic Vision of the Restoration of Israel. It would also strive to lay the foundations for achieving peaceful reconciliation between the two greatly estranged Houses of Judah (the Jews) and 10-Israel (a.k.a the House of Yosef and Ephraim, or ‘the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel’), exiled amongst the nations. The Kol Ha Tor Vision strives to bring an awareness on either side of the 3000 year long, great rift in the House of G-d, regarding each side’s responsibilities to achieve Peace and Reconciliation.

    The Kol HaTor Vision derived its name from the Publication of the vision and the writings of the greatest Jewish authority on the subject of the Redemption of the entire House of Israel, the Gaon of Vilna (Rabbi Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman – the Genius of Vilna, Lithuania, 1720-1797).

  2. Re: The Los Lunas Decalogue Stone

    From: Steve Collins

    Shalom Yair,

    I’ll offer some commentary on the ancient Hebrew inscriptions found at Los Lunas, New Mexico and the Ohio Decalogue tablet. I have been to the Los Lunas site and seen it and the area around it extensively with my own eyes in its natural setting and I have corresponded with the museum which has the original Decalogue tablet in Ohio. I have an exact replica of the Decalogue tablet by my computer as I write this email.

    First allow me to offer some context to the discussions re: these artifacts. The scientific/educational establishment in America is dominated by evolutionists who always deny anything and everything which is supportive of the Bible. They are not merely minimalists, they are complete deniers re: biblical matters. The dogma that “Columbus discovered America” in 1492 is one of the evolutionists’ main creeds because they need to believe that viewpoint in order to maintain their belief than mankind evolved from precocious sea slime gradually reached the point where they could venture across the Atlantic by 1492. They hate the Bible and suppress or malign evidence supporting it. No one should make the error of assuming the evolutionists who dominate American education and science are objective. Abundant evidence indicates that mankind was vastly more advanced in 1000 BC than in 1000 AD. The Bible is especially disliked by evolutionists because it is what historians, epigraphers and archaeologists call a “diffusionist” book from ancient times (i.e. biblical accounts attest to transoceanic voyages across continents whereby mankind “diffused” knowledge and contacts throughout the globe). The Bible asserts Solomon’s fleets embarked on voyages which lasted three years before they returned to Israel with wildlife from other continents (I Kings 10:22). Solomon’s navy was privy to all the navigational knowledge which the globe-trotting Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon possessed (I Kings 9:27, II Chronicles 8:17-18). I Kings 9:27 records that King Hiram’s sailors and Solomon’s sailors jointly crewed the ships of the Phoenician/Israelite fleets so there was nothing the Phoenician mariners knew which wasn’t also known to the Israelite mariners.

    The presence of Phoenician/Hebrew inscriptions in North America and all over the globe is evidence that Solomon’s fleets literally explored the globe during his reign. There are many more Hebrew inscriptions in North America than the Los Lunas and Decalogue artifacts. Another one was the Bat Creek stone, a Hebrew inscription from the American Southeast, which the establishment declared to be a forgery until it was realized they were trying to read it upside down. Dr. Cyrus Gordon, one of the most esteemed American archaeologists and epigraphers, declared the Bat Creek stone to be a valid ancient Hebrew inscription (see his book, Before Columbus, pp. 175-187). Dr. Gordon’s books also shows photographs of ancient Jewish coins dug up in ancient North American sites. There is no question that ancient Hebrew-speaking Israelites were present in ancient North America. Indeed, Dr. Gordon denounces with some vehemence those who deny that other civilizations were not present in North America long before Columbus (p. 187).

    The Los Lunas inscription is not alone. There are other Hebrew inscriptions in that area and extending for many miles from that inscription. I personally was escorted to the site by the President of the New Mexico Epigraphic Society (who speaks Hebrew himself), he showed me a number of the Hebrew inscriptions and the location of some of these is not publicized because vandals and deniers will want to erase and vandalize them. Some of these ancient Hebrew inscriptions are reproduced on pages 219-222 of my book, The Origins and Empire of Ancient Israel. The location of the Los Lunas site is instructive. It is located next to a very large, dried-up ancient river course that is remarkably deep. The strata at the river bed shows dark layers where the Los Lunas region was sometimes well-watered and habitable. When the large river course was full, one could have sailed a large ship from Los Lunas to the Rio Grande River to the Gulf of Mexico and then to the Atlantic Ocean and eventually, to Israel itself. One of the Hebrew inscriptions in the region, according to my escort, translates as “tribe of Asher.” Under Solomon, the fleets of Israel scoured the earth for raw materials to build the Temple and Solomon’s other massive edifices. Other sources cited in my book point out the Phoenicians constructed special large ships simply to haul raw materials. It is known by mining engineers that the copper mines in the Lake Superior region were worked to exhaustion around 1000 BC, the time when King David was massing raw materials for the eventual Temple which Solomon would build. Engineering sources also confirm that the vast quantity of copper mined in the Lake Superior region was not used in ancient North America, so it was exported to some other continent by someone. David had the desire and the means to bring that copper to Israel via Phoenician fleets where he amassed copper-based brass materials for the temple “beyond measuring.” The Israelites didn’t mine all that copper in Israel. So we have a biblically confirmed record that the Israelites had a need to locate and import large amounts of copper and iron from all over the earth at the very time when copper mines in North America were worked to exhaustion.

    The Los Lunas inscription is found in the ancient Paleo-Hebrew script that was used during the times of the kings of ancient Israel and Judah, which indicates that the inscription dates to that time. Solomon’s fleets were sailing the world, and they could sail directly from Israel to Los Lunas! The Los Lunas inscription preserves an account of the Ten Commandments so it had to be done at a time when far-flung Israelites were obedient to God’s laws. The only historical context where this fits the Bible is in Solomon’s time. Even the sailors were proclaiming God’s laws at that time. Those who try and deny the dating of this artifact to Solomon’s time (a time appropriate for the script) would be hard pressed to find any basis for convincing anyone that someone in the American Southwest in recent centuries could skillfully inscribe a lengthy inscription in a Hebrew script not used for approximately 2500 years. One denier asserted the patinization of the inscription was insufficient to be as old as the script would indicate, but then it was learned that a boy scout troop was regularly cleaning the inscription with wire brushes which had destroyed all the ancient patinization (and the objections of the denier). There was also a bizarre effort to assert the inscription was a Greek-Hebrew composite language also found on supposed “Zak” stones in the area. In a court trial in New Mexico, there was a legal finding of fact that the “Greek-Hebrew” assertion was the fraudulent option. Indeed, the supposed Greek-Hebrew “translation” was based on reading the inscription in the wrong direction! This court trial also heard evidence that: “scholars of ancient Hebrew can read the text essentially at sight and it shows correct grammar in use of tenses, gender, number and pronominal affixes.” This quote and an account of the trial attesting to the genuineness of the ancient Hebrew artifact is found in an article on pp. 206-219 of The Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications, Vol. 17, 1988. I offer to send a copy of this article to you if you would like it. I am convinced the artifact is genuine.

    It is also worth noting that one can see Indian clan signs in the vicinity of the Los Lunas Hebrew inscriptions. Before Europeans ruled this region, Indians for some reason selected this very site to be a special place for their clan signs to be placed. This argues that they saw the ancient inscriptions in that area and, judging the place to be a sacred site from some ancient time, decided to place their clan signs in the same location.

    The Decalogue tablet found in Ohio cannot date to Solomon’s time. It is inscribed in the square Hebrew style which did not come into use until after the fall of Israel’s and Judah’s kingdoms. It is a portable inscribed tablet with a handle which would accommodate a carrying strap. Interestingly, it had an image of Moses on it. It fits comfortably in one’s hand. It was found when a grave mound was excavated in 1860 so it had been buried for a very long time. It was not possible for it to be a recently-made forgery, and it was found with other Semitic inscriptions in the burial mound. It may be that a Phoenician/Israelite mining colony survived in ancient North America after the fall of Israel and was sustained via Phoenician ships afterward for a time. It may have been erected by Jews fleeing in Maccabean times who joined the colony in North America because they knew where it was located. Dr. Gordon’s documentation that ancient Jewish coins dating to the 2nd century AD were found in America not too far from the burial mound where the Decalogue tablet was found indicates that Hebrew-speaking colonists or refugees periodically fled to the New World at various times in ancient history. What is clear from the Decalogue tablet is that it dates to many centuries before Columbus. It had been in the burial mound for many centuries before Columbus ever came to America. Photos of the Decalogue tablet appear in my book, The Origin and Empire of Ancient Israel, and commentary about the Semitic inscriptions also found in the burial mound are found on pp. 34-39 of my book, Israel’s Lost Empires. Any of my books may be purchased at the publisher’s website:
    A published article I wrote years ago refuting the minimalists’ dim viewpoints of the sailing abilities of the ancient Hebrews can be found at: http://www.israelite.info

    I hope these comments are useful to you

    Steve Collins

  3. Secretly, everyone wants to be Jewish

    Comment by Charles Martel — August 3, 2008 @ 11:40 am

    And not so secretly:

    Your Personal Invitation to share in End Time Project

    Fri, 01 Aug 2008 11:49:20 +0200

    Agatha van der Merwe

    Kol haTor co-ordinator

    Jeremiah 3:18 “In those days the House of Judah will join the House of Israel, and together they will come from a northern land to the land I gave your forefathers as an inheritance..”

    The Kol HaTor Vision promotes Reconciliation between the House of Judah and the House of 10-Israel (Ephraim.Yoseph).

    We have reason to believe that the Kol HaTor Web Site will be of interest to you.

    It offers you the unique opportunity of sharing in the thrilling Action which is taking place right in the forefront in Jerusalem and across the world. Kol HaTor promotes awareness and understanding of the amazing current phenomenon of the re-identification and Return of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel in order to establish Peace where great division has raged for almost 3000 years. This Action Program is launched from both a Rabbinical and a Hebraic Messianic platform from Jerusalem.

    The strategy and benefit of KHT, is to offer an Umbrella facility to both the House of Judah and the greatly splintered House of 10-Israel. Through this Umbrella facility, KHT strives to:

    * Gather us all into closely shared protection against the opposition that this movement draws

    * NOT to create yet another new organization

    * NOT to infringe on your current organization or principles of Faith

    * NOT to draw support away from yourselves

    * NOT to change your views beyond what we probably already can agree on

    * NOT to set any guidelines from which you may not deviate (apart from the foundational principles which is defined in the 7 “Uniting Factors” which associates should agree upon. refer: http://www.kolhator.org.il/unitingfactors.php

    Your associating with the KHT Vision under the KHT Umbrella will provide us all with the following benefits:

    * That together, we will labour for the greatest Promise and Goal which the Bible sets before us, i.e. Redemption (‘Geulah’), the Reconciliation in the Family and Nation of HaShem – a Reunited 12-Tribed House of Israel

    * Together we will become a Voice which will be hard to silence or to suppress. This Voice will declare the Divine Purpose of HaShem, i.e. Reconciliation IN the Land of Promise. Together we will bring this Reconciliation to fruition for we are ALL part of it.

    We are simply asking for your declaration of association with the KHT Vision and your assistance to promote and publish this Vision as widely a possible.

    The KHT strategy works – as proven by:

    * The forthright and eager supportive co-operation which the Project is receiving from 10-Triber leaders and even prominent orthodox Rabbis (though a small percentage, while the majority is carefully scrutinizing the direction that this Project will be taking).

    * The opportunities already created, with benefits both for independent projects and for KHT. Once KHT associates understand, accept and co-operate with this strategy, we all will go places – and much more so, the Purpose and Plan of HaShem will be achieved: Peace in Zion!

    This strategy is well defined in, and confirmed by, a definition for Peace between striding factions within Judaism, which was offered by Rav Yisachar Shlomo Teichtal: (Eim Habanim Semeicha (EHS) pp. 328, 339, 341, 343, 364-5, 368 ) :

    “Peace and unity do not consist of the avoidance of conflict alone, and cannot be achieved by the suppression of differences. Rather, unification in true peace is a positive state that presupposes authentic connectedness — affirmative engagement and willingness to encounter others in their fullness — along with concerted efforts at mutual understanding and appreciation (if not validation) of differences in culture, practice and ideology.” We believe that to these 3 factors should be added “differences in religion”, within the parameters of the KHT 7 Uniting Factors.

    If we all strive for this unity, Success must result, with HaShem’s Guidance and Grace.

    If we have misconstrued your interest, please simply ignore this approach and be assured that you will not receive any further follow-up communications.

    Should the topic be of interest to you, then please visit our new Web Site at http://www.kolhator.org.il You may then consider to join our Kol HaTor forum in an “observation-only” or an “active support” capacity. In this way you will be able to share further information and reports of the progress of this project, on a continual basis, or even to participate in promoting and steering this End Time Solution.

    Trusting that this information will be of interest to you and that it will offer you unique and exciting opportunities to share in this great Prophetic Fulfillment, as it precedes the establishment of the Rule of the soon Coming King of Israel.

    Kind regards,

    OvadYah Avrahami

    Administrative co-ordinator KOL HA TOR VISION

    Ezek 37:19-22 “The Master HaShem says this: I am taking the stick of Joseph (now in Ephraim’s hand) and those tribes of Israel loyal to him and shall join them to the stick of Judah. I shall make one stick out of the two, a single stick in My hand. … I shall take the Israelites from the nations where they have gone. I shall gather them together from everywhere and bring them home to their own soil. I shall make them into one nation in the country, on the mountains of Israel, and one King is to be King of them all; they will no longer form two nations, nor be two separate kingdoms.”

    Bill, if this is a newfangled concept to you, you’d better get used to it. You’ll be seeing plenty more of this. We are no longer only up against Jews for Jesus and outright missionarizing. Now we’ve got parasites claim that they’re actually part of the host.

  4. Shy Guy – Brilliant!!!

    Got into this a little late. Could be that I’m the Scots Jew to whom Yamit was referring.

    People can sit on top of their various dead dogmas – especially historical dogmas – or they can examine possibilities, using a seldom used mental faculty called “curiosity.”

    Oat doesn’t appear to be into this. But I ask him to tell me why it is that the Scottish flag is a white “X” on a dark blue background, instead of the traditional “+” such as that of the English flag. The odd thing is that the “X” shape is the ancient Hebrew version of Tav (Tau)… which was also a Kabbalistic symbol (as I believe were many or most of the Hebrew letters). Now why would that be, Oat?

    When you combine genealogy and genetics, the possibilities really start to heat up. I have also heard about the ancient relationships of the Jews with the North American Indians… There’s a lot out there – “accepted wisdom” – that I don’t accept, simply because it doesn’t make sense. Laughing at items that run counter to existing dogma, using the “it isn’t scientific” is deeply ignorant, because in fact, much of what we take for “scientific truth” is utter rubbish. Much of what was taught to me during my engineering studies is quite pathetic and doesn’t stand up to any scrutiny whatsoever.

    And Einstein?… Wait a few years.

  5. By the way read when Scotland was Jewish, I have it from a real Scots Jew that the information in the book seems to be credible.

    Comment by yamit82 — August 3, 2008 @ 8:01 am

    Things have never been the same there ever since the day the Scots mixed up kitls with kilts.

  6. Oat not only you are into genealogy, there are better and more professional out there than you. Sorry to fuck up your pseudo false WASP pride and arrogance, but I have similar data from a lot of sources not just what I posted. So before you look down your Christian nose at what could very well be a more correct version of history check it out thoroughly for your self..If you really get stuck I will supply the links, which is a lot of work for me as I have 2 years of data not well organized. As far as OBL we Jews are more closely related to him than to you wasps, but you never know Jews are like bees we spread our pollen everywhere.

    By the way read when Scotland was Jewish, I have it from a real Scots Jew that the information in the book seems to be credible.

  7. So Pocohontas was a rabbi’s daughter, eh? Her father built the Brooklyn Bridge, and my family inherited it. If anyone here wants to buy it, I will offer it cheap.

    Comment by BlandOatmeal — August 3, 2008 @ 6:12 am

    Do you accept credit beads?

  8. Next, I’ll hear that Osama bin Laden is a closet Jew.

    How much of this nonesense do I have to listen to? The Cherokees are linguistically related to the Iroquois, and related by both mtDNA and yDNA to other American Indians. The “Melungeons” are a mixed race, which got whatever Jewish and other “Old World” genes they have from European immigration. Even apart from the Melungeons, the Cherokee are a very mixed people, with a large admixture of African Negro and European.

    So Pocohontas was a rabbi’s daughter, eh? Her father built the Brooklyn Bridge, and my family inherited it. If anyone here wants to buy it, I will offer it cheap.

  9. Shy Guy http://lazerbrody.typepad.com/lazer_beams/2005/08/the_trail_of_te.html

    The Trail of Tears – part 5: Ingathering of the exiles

    The prophet Isaiah teaches us that an ingathering of the exiles will herald the day of Redemption, for “You will be gathered up one by one, O Children of Israel; It shall be on that day that a great shofar [ram’s horn – LB] shall sound, and those lost in the land of Assyria and foresaken in the land of Egypt [and from all the other countries of exile and dispersion – LB] will come [together – LB] and bow down to Hashem on the holy mountain of Jerusalem (Isaiah 27:12-13).

    Cherokees coming home: The skeptics don’t want to see the writing on the wall, because once a person acknowledges G-d and the eternal truth of Torah, then that person is behooved to make urgent changes for the better. One can act like an ostrich, and put his or her head in the ground, and pretend not to see the imminent redemption. But, one can’t deny the evidence that has been rolling in from all over the world, that we are seeing Isaiah’s prophecy fulfilled before our very eyes. From a bulging mailbag, I’ve discovered that Tsa La Gi is not alone; I’ve heard from for other Cherokee descendants who have concerted or are in the process of converting to Orthodox Judaism (what I call Orthodox is what many others term ultra-Orthodox; Orthodox means that one observes all the laws of Torah). Let me share with you an excerpt from amazing letter from an extraordinary woman, now living in Jerusalem:

    …I am convinced that not only was my soul on Mount Sinai with the rest of the Jewish souls when G-d revealed himself and gave us the Torah, but that there are genetic links to the People of Israel throughout my ancestry. I am a fifth-generation Texan; I had a Cherokee great-great grandmother by the name of Laura Broken Bow. I wondered many years ago if the Trail of Tears was not the last stage of assimilation for this “lost” tribe. The similarity to past Jewish experience could not be simply coincidental…I and three of my four children are halachic converts to Judaism and I am personally acquainted with many, many more converts with the same background including another entire family who hails from Oklahoma. The Lost Tribes are returning—some quietly (like us), some more publicly (like the Bnei Menasha from India and the Jews from Ethiopia)—but nevertheless returning, B”H! Devorah Chayah Shem Tov, from the holy city of Jerusalem

    Cherokee_elder_by_kathy_baker Cherokee Elder, an original drawing by artist Kathy Baker. Could this brave’s great great grandchildren be learning Torah in Jerusalem today? You bet!

    Imagine, Laura Broken Bow’s great-great granddaughter is now an Orthodox Jewish mother in Jerusalem. Isaiah’s prophecy is in the works – Moshiach and the rebuilding of the holy temple are only a matter of time. Back in America, Tsa La Gi feels it too. Here’s what he writes in his most recent letter to me:

    Rabbi, I believe that we will see many glorious things ahead. One wonders how glorious it will be to see the complete wonder of the re-established tribes of Israel, repentant and in complete submission to G-d, as they become a light to all nations! I seriously hope I live to see that day, so I can revel in the glory of it, and cheer for the people of Israel as they are sought for wisdom by all the peoples of the world. What a wonderful world that will be! Meanwhile, we have a few bumps in the road to face, and a few more clashes with despots to endure, of that I am certain. I hope no one loses hope or faith in the process, because the outcome is well worth the trials.

    Tsa La Gi, with his cogent powers of analysis, hit the nail on the head – the battle is not to lose hope or faith in the process of anticipating redemption. Redemption will require absolute commitment and strength of faith; a person won’t be able to skirt both sides of the fence. That brings us to Afghanistan.

    Who’s afraid of redemption? The Fundamentalist Christians and the missionaries are, because they know that Moshiach will destroy the twenty centuries of lies that they’ve used to persecute us. The Cherokees don’t upset the Fundamentalist Christians and the missionaries so much, because the number of Cherokees returning to Jewish roots hasn’t yet reached four figures. On the other hand, Afghanistan – and particularly the Pathans – make them tremble in their boots.

    Pathan_children Pathan children – they look strikingly similar to Yemenite Jewish children

    The Pathans: The Pathans are proud of several things – one, they’ve never assimilated; two, they acknowledge their roots from the tribes of Israel (some claim to be Benjaminites while others claim to be Menashe; I concur with the latter opinion); three, although they are offically Moslems, they wear a fringed garment that resembles tzitzit, keep their heads covered, observe the Sabbath, and circumcise their sons at exactly 8 days old. The Pathans are fiercely brave and totally committed, having succeeded to drive the Russian Army out of Afghanistan.

    No_compromise_pathan The eyes of conviction: Pathans are no-nonsense and no-compromise

    The Pathans have totally frustrated the Christian missionaries. One major group of USA missionaries who have completely struck out in Afghanistan writes, “Since their entire way of life is opposed to change, the Pathan present one of the strongest challenges to the Christian Church today. Much intercession is needed if they are to be successfully reached with the Gospel.”

    This morning, I had the privilege of davening with Rabbi BT (hidden tzaddik and kabbalist from Ashdod, who disagreed with Rabbi Mordechai Eliahu and maintained that the Disengagement would happen, as part of the greater redemption process). After the services, I approached Rabbi BT and told him about all of my findings as to the lost tribes, and particularly the Cherokees of the USA and the Pathans of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Rabbi BT said that all of the latter are certain descendants of Israel, and many of the former. He also told me that Moshiach will ingather those of the Lost Tribes that haven’t fallen victim to Christianity. Do you know what that means? Fifteen million Pathans will recognize the truth of Moshiach, and all will be coming home to Israel.

    An end to Disengagement: Modern Israel is also plagued by American-style assimilation. The secular Israelis, eager to live a cheap imitation of American-appetite lifestyle, have thrown away the yoke of Torah and its ethics. A person who denies Torah has no problem giving up parts of the Holy Land in order to gain a few months of imaginary peace in his local pub or cafe, as the typical Israeli secular expression says, “Let’s eat and be merry, because tomorrow we’ll die”. 15 million Pathans, who will undoubtedly cling to the Torah as they’ve done to their heritage for the last 27 centuries, will horrify the USA, secular Israel (which is decaying anyway), and the Arabs. No longer will Jews in the Holy Land disengage themselves from the duties of the heart as specified in our holy Torah. Like it or not, Israel shall be the palace of Hashem’s Divine Presence and a land of Torah. In the King’s palace, there’s no compromises.

    What you can do: Geula, the complete redemption of our people and the ingathering of 27 centuries of exiles is already taking place. There’s no more time to sit on the fence, to pray in the morning and to watch Hollywood DVD’s in the evening. Now’s the time for Torah, Tshuva, and commitment. American Jewry especially has to wake up and declare war on the assimilation that’s killing 300,000 American Jews every decade. “Modern” forms of watered-down Jewry are only expediting assimilation. It’s about time we put a stop to the centuries-long Trail of Tears, and begin rejoicing in the revival of our heritage, the ingathering of all the exiles, and the imminent coming of Moshiach Tzidkenu, speedily and in our days, amen.

    Nvwa-dohi-yadv, danitaga! That’s Cherokee for “go in peace, my brother!” May Hashem shine His countenance on each and every one of you always.

    ***The End of “The Trail of Tears”***

    Thursday, 25 August 2005 at 12:09 AM in Geula and redemption

  10. Shy Guy: second part I am afraid of Teds spider:

    The Trail of Tears, part 4: Birds of a feather

    The Indian Act of 1831, Jewish assimilation in America, the death camps of the Holocaust, secular Zionism, the invasion of Afghanistan after 9/11, and the Disengagement in Israel are all birds of the same feather. Here’s how:

    The Cherokees of Georgia: The Cherokees of Georgia, who in the 1830’s were forcefully exiled to Oklahoma, are basically the southern most subtribe of the Iriquois, the mother tribe of the Senecas in Maryland, the Algonquins in New York State, the Creek, the Yuchi, and others. As far as DNA goes, all the Iriquois who have been tested check out as of Middle east origin; some even carry the Y-chromosome of the Cohanim. A tribe of superb nautical prowess (like Zvulon and Dan, their probable ancestors), the Iriquois are believed to have sailed from Northern Israel, exiled by the Assyrians in 722 BCE, eastward along the Mediterranean, rounding Portugal then heading north to the British Isles, and subsequently crossing the Atlantic at the shortest point to Newfoundland – all some two thousand years before Columbus arrived in America. The Cherokees moved south, settling in the Carolinas and Georgia. Essentially, American Independance was a black day for them. The American Christian missionaries found the 18th Century Cherokees to be staunchly monotheistic, and vigorously opposed to the notions of Christianity. The missionaries, furious, began a smear campaign against the Cherokees, portraying them as lewd bloodthirsty savages (see James Adair’s “History of the North American Indians). Southern Christian fundamentalists later twisted Andrew Jackson’s ear to sign the ‘hate bill” of 1830 that lead to the expulsion of the Cherokees from Georgia and the subsequent death march of the tribe to the barren wilderness of Oklahoma. To this day, the nasty Southern Christian stereotypes of the Indians linger on in the media and in the cinema. Ultimately, those Cherokees who remained alive were christened by missionaries; today, there are few pure-blooded Cherokees. Assimilation and the missionaries have taken their toll, and few people of Cherokee descent know much about their own tradition.

    The Jews of America: You may want to ask, why didn’t the fundamentalist Christian missionaries declare war on the newly-arriving Jewish immigrants like they did on the Cherokee? The answer is simple – they didn’t have to. The vast majority of Jews were more than happy to throw off the yoke of their religion, and to adopt the new religion of the greenback dollar. In the last thirty years, the number of Jews in the USA has dropped by nearly a million, from 6.1 million in 1970 to 5.2 million in 2000, while every other ethnic group is growing in leaps and bounds. Frankly speaking, Hitler killed bodies but American assimilation is killing over 300,000 Jewish souls every decade. So, the Christian Fundamentalists in the USA don’t have to kill Jews – the Jews themselves are doing the dirty work.

    The Death Camps of the Holocaust: Roosevelt and the USA didn’t lift a finger to bomb the death trains or the concentration camps, despite the fact that they had aerial maps and intel on both. Roosevelt knew that the Jews in America were killing themselves, and he let Hitler do the dirty work in Europe. As such, the Christain white-collar antisemites of America was having the “Jewish problem” solved without soiling their own fingers as in the case of the Indians. When the Yanks made a show of liberating the concentration camps, only a few thousand walking skeletons remained – too little, too late.

    Labor Zionists and the establishment of Israel (see Perfidy, by Ben Hecht): David Ben Gurion and his labor Zionist cohorts hated religious Jews with an insane passion. Ben Gurion thought that the few Haredim (ultra-orthodox) could be maintained in the Mea Shearim section of Jerusalem, similar to an Indian reservation and tourist attraction. The Labor Zionists were given several chances to save the Jews of Europe, but didn’t lift a finger. They assured the American Christians that they’d build a non-Jewish secular state, thus receiving limited American support. The Haredim, the National Religious, and the Tshuva movement pose a serious demographic threat to the Labor Zionists, whose goal is to continue their corrupt hold on the Holy Land.

    Afghanistan: The Fundamentalist Christian regime in America has used 9/11 as an excuse to nearly wipe Afghanistan off the map (an classic example of Fundamentalist Christian hypocrisy; they preach restrain to when the victims of terror are Jews, such as in Israel). You may argue about the Cherokees, but the 15 million Pathans of Afghanistan – although Moslems today – are clearly of Jewish origin from the Assyrian exile of the Northern tribes. Tomorrow, in Part 5 of “The Trail of Tears”, we’ll discuss the spiritual and strategic importance of the Pathans, G-d willing. By accusing the Afghanis of harboring Bin Laden, Fundamentalist Christian USA declared the Pathans free game. In my humble opinion, this is another tragic event in a long series of Christian murder crusades.

    Disengagement: Labor Zionism backfired; former secular pioneers can now be found on the streets of Los Angeles and Queens. More than 80% of the settlers in Jewish Gaza, Judah, and Sammaria are observant Jews. These fiercely loyal, fervent pioneers don’t want the secular side-walk cafe country that was expected to assimilate and die its own death. The Secular Zionists, fueled by corruption, greed, and their addiction to American dollars, are now doing the bidding of Mr. George Fundamentalist Christian president, and are systematically dismantling religious Israel; their war on the Haredim began long ago, and now they’ve declared war on Religious Zionism. This very minute, with the tears of Jewish Gaza still wet on our cheeks, Ms. Condi Rice is calling for more expulsions.

  11. Of course I considered a forgery, but if a forgery, it would have had to be forged by a scholar of semitic and Greek languages and ancient ones at that. One of the reasons there is so much academic skepticism, Is it flys in the face of all or most accepted historical precepts. Another is that if real it would mean that Jews and other semitic peoples have a history in the new world that predates there long accepted acceptance that the Vikings and later Columbus were the first non natives in n. America. It destroys their academic theology and opens the door to a whole new are of study. They will have to rewrite the whole history of western civilization and N. America and alter accepted truths . Not easy for this crown especially it is the Jews we are speaking about!!!

    I think partly because I want to but mostly I will go along with more modern and contemporary expertise like Fell who is considered authoritative by most in the academic world.

    Even with the stone there is a wealth of other corroborative evidence and support: Read Rav laser Brody, who is also into native Americans and Jews and while not authoritive has some interesting insight.

    A tribute to “Wolf Brother”

    My affinity for the Cherokee nation is no secret. The striking similarities between the Jews and the Cherokees, in addition to several deep friendships I made with Cherokee Indians, led to the five-part series known as “The Trail of Tears”. Since then, I’ve developed many more contacts with Cherokee descendants.

    Yesterday, I received a moving letter from Ulisi Unegv Wohali (Cherokee for Grandmother White Eagle), a highly respected elder of the Cherokees, who has honored me with the Cherokee name of Wa ya Udo, which means “wolf brother”. It’s an amazing name, because phonetically, it’s very similar to Hayehudi, Hebrew for “the Jew”. Here’s what she writes:

    Osyio Rabbi Wa ya Udo [Peace to you Rabbi Wolf Brother – LB]

    It is my honor, as a Tsa la giyi [Cherokee – LB] Ulisi [elder – LB] to give you the name that the Great Being has told me to give you. You are a brother – no doubt and you have the best understanding of “peace” or Shalom of any in this land. However, you are also a teacher and a pathfinder for the uneducated. Your loyalty to G-d’s word shows the world why only the Jews could be trusted to pass down the word of G-d without changing as much as one letter.

    This is why you should be called Wa ya Udo or Wolf Brother. Wolves have been long regarded by Native Americans as teachers or pathfinders. Wolves are fiercely loyal to their mates, and have a strong sense of family while maintaining individualism. The Wolf has come to be associated with ancient teachings. Wolves are probably the most misunderstood of the wild animals. Tales of cold bloodedness abound, in spite of the their friendly, social and intelligent traits. They are truly free spirits even though their packs are highly organized. They seem to go out of their way to avoid a fight. Traditionally, someone with Wolf Medicine has a strong sense of self, and communicates well through subtle changes in voice inflection and body movements.They often find new solutions to problems while providing stability and support that one normally associates with a family structure. In short, a Wolf is a loyal Brother that teaches, leads and makes a path where others do not have the courage to go.

    I hope you find this pleasing and may the G-d’s word always be a lamp unto your feet and light unto your path!

    G-d Bless,

    Ulisi Unegv Wohali

    The Wisdom of Grandmother White Eagle

    White_eagle Yesterday’s letter from Grandmother White Eagle stimulated some interesting reactions from the four corners of the globe. Here are a few:

    YMG from London writes:

    Just wondered if any of your readers noticed the expertise Grandmother White Eagle showed in her letter to you – her analysis of the lessons to be learnt from the wolf could lead to a doctorate in the in the University of the Trail (referring to Chapter 3 of The Trail to Tranquility – LB)! I wonder who’ll be teaching who when we become reunited with our lost brethren. Warmest regards from chilly London

    Rabbi HK from NYC writes:

    Your post from yesterday was a kiddush Hashem (sanctification of Hashem’s name – LB), especially when the Cherokee elder wrote, “Your loyalty to G-d’s word shows the world why only the Jews could be trusted to pass down the word of G-d without changing as much as one letter”. When the wise people of the nations praise those loyal Jews who walk the path of Torah, then the Shechina (Divine presence – LB) is raised from exile. I wish our own people would realize the importance of preserving Torah to the letter…

    Miriam W. from Jerusalem writes:

    I got chills up my spine when I read yesterday’s post. I am a gerras Tzedek (convert – LB), and my mother was half Cherokee; my grandmother’s name was Helen Lightfoot, a full Cherokee from Oklahoma. Strangely, I always had a deep love for the Jewish people, and once I came here to Israel, I knew I had come home. Your articles about the Jewish roots of the Cherokee are not only fascinating, but in my heart and brain I know they’re true. I join Grandmother White Eagle in applauding Wa ya Udo – Rabbi Wolf Brother.

    Brian from San Francisco writes:

    I checked out your site after seeing you quoted in a Bay-area Jewish newspaper. I had always heard that the Orthodox, especially the ultras like the Hassidim, are intolerant and insular. I was floored to see a letter between you and a Cherokee elder. Seeing how much Grandmother White Eagle respects the Jewish people makes me want to learn more about my own people…

    I’ll conclude this post with another amazing Jewish-Cherokee tidbit: Grandmother White Eagle wrote me that the Cherokee have a custom of ritual immersion and purification seven times in a river or other natural body of fresh water, called Atawastiyi, the Cherokee version of mikva. In ancient Arameic, the daily jargon that the Northern tribes of Israel spoke, Asa vest, which is amazingly similar to Atawastiyi, means “the menstrual period has gone”, indicating the exact time of required ritual immersion.

    May we see an ingathering of all the exiles soon, amen.

    Friday, 18 November

  12. The Los Lunas Decalogue Stone

    Seems Jews from the Time of Solomon were wandering about America when the Europeans were still living in trees and caves!!!!!

    Translation of the Los Lunas Inscription

    The stone inscription is carved in old-Hebrew letters. These are almost identical in shape and font-style with Phoenician characters. Each line in the message is to be read from right to left. In the Hebrew written language there are no vowels. It only uses consonants.

    Each statement is separated from the next one by a dot sign. This separation style is not uncommon for old Hebrew or Phoenician inscriptions. E.g. the Middle Eastern Moabite Stone (9th century B.C.E.) follows a similar pattern using dot separators between words. (see 11)

    The Los Lunas inscription starts with the top line, continues on the 3rd line, goes back into the 2nd line (that one was inserted later, hence the smaller line spacing !), it then goes on with the left half of the 3rd line and continues all the way down to the last line.

    A detailed interlinear translation, which has been compiled from a careful drawing of the Los Lunas inscription, can be studied below:

    interlinear translation http://www.mhccorp.com/archaeology/decalogue-translation.html

    Here is a modern-day English translation of the Los Lunas Decalogue:

    I am Jehovah your God who has taken you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slaves. There must be no other gods before my face. You must not make any idol. You must not take the name of Jehovah in vain. Remember the sabbath day and keep it holy. Honour your father and your mother so that your days may be long in the land that Jehovah your God has given to you. You must not murder. You must not commit adultery. You must not steal. You must not give a false witness against your neighbour. You must not desire the wife of your neighbour nor anything that is his.

  13. Don Solomono, Jewish Indian Chief


    From the earliest contact between North American Indians and white European settlers, the Europeans held the upper hand. Almost unremittingly, the Europeans imposed their idea of private ownership of land on the Native Americans, obtaining it from them by purchase, stealth and war. Virtually every Indian tribe in North America found its contacts with white settlers painful, if not fatal, and few Indians trusted or respected, much less loved, the white men and women they knew.

    One exception to this generalization was Solomon Bibo, a white trader who won the trust and affection of the Acoma Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. In 1888, “Don Solomono,” as he was known to the Acomas, became governor of the Acoma Pueblo, the equivalent of chief of the tribe. Remarkably, the Acomas asked the United States to recognize Bibo as their leader. Even more remarkable is that Bibo was a Jew.

    Solomon Bibo was born in Prussia in 1853, the sixth of eleven children. In 1866, two of Solomon’s brothers ventured to America and settled in New Mexico, which in 1848 had become part of the United States after being first a Spanish colony and then part of Mexico. Initially, the older Bibo brothers worked for the Spiegelberg family, pioneer Jewish merchants in New Mexico, but moved on to the tiny village of Ceboletta, where they set up a trading post to exchange goods with the Navajos. In 1869, at the age of sixteen, Solomon Bibo left Germany for America. After spending some months on the East coast learning English, he joined his brothers in Ceboletta.